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3 4, the term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca.
2, lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, hyundai accent 2002 repair manual sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as henrique e juliano cd 2015 a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities.
For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines and India.
International auxiliary languages such as Esperanto have not had a great degree of adoption globally so they cannot be described as global lingua francas.Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Simon and Schuster, 1980 Ostler, 2005.Here is the list with our pages to index."Speaking in Tongues: Science's centuries-long hunt for a common language".For example, Urdu is the lingua franca of Pakistan as well as the national language.Information, web-master, index our site and show results with our quality serials on your site.Characteristics edit, lingua franca is a term defined functionally, "independently of the linguistic history or structure of the language".Patrick Week 11, Autumn term.8 9 10 The Douglas Harper Etymology Dictionary states that the term Lingua Franca (as the name of the particular language) was first recorded in English during the 1670s, 11 although an even earlier example of the use of Lingua Franca in English is attested.
Still, Indonesian is the sole official language and is spoken, often as a second language, throughout the country.
In Lingua Franca (the specific language lingua means a language, as in Portuguese and Italian, and franca is related to phrankoi in Greek and faranji in Arabic as well as the equivalent Italian.
Also Persian is the lingua franca of Iran and its national language.Learn how to successfully use our website by watching our flash video tutorial.New York: Walker isbn External links edit.Whereas a vernacular language is used as a native language in a community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community and is used as a second language for communication between groups.To see full numbers without asterisks, please, prove you are not a robot and then push "Show serial mx player for symbian s60 v3 number" button.7 At that time, Italian -speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek, Old French, Portuguese, Occitan, and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be widely.Akkadian and then Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires.163167 Further reading edit Hall,.A.